The average depth of their dives is about 300 to 600 meters, typically for around 20 min for females and 60 min (1 hour) for males, as they search for their favorite foods, which are skates, rays, squid, octopuses, eels, penguin, and small sharks
Elephant seals are shielded from extreme cold by their blubber, more so than by fur. The animals' hair and outer layers of skin molt periodically. The skin has to be re-grown by blood vessels reaching through the blubber.
When molting occurs, the seal is susceptible to the cold, and must rest on land, in a safe place called a "haul-out." While the molt is taking place the bulls cease fighting with one another as there are not breeding harems and females in estrous to protect.
The common name was given to the species by English explorers, probably due to the bird's conspicuous yellow crest. Maccaronism was a term for a particular style in 18th-century England marked by flamboyant or excessive ornamentation. A person who adopted this fashion was labeled a maccaroni or macaroni, as in the song Yankee Doodle.
Although the number of Macaroni Penguins is currently high, the decline of the overall population in the last 30 years has resulted in the classification of the species as globally Vulnerable by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
Like other penguin species, The Macaroni Penguin is a social animal in its nesting and its foraging behavior; its breeding colonies are among the largest and most densely populated of all penguin species
Antarctic pearlwort is one of the two flowering plants found in the Antarctic region. The plant has a cushion-like growth habit, giving it a moss-like appearance, and bears white flowers. It reaches a height of about two inches. Reports indicate a five-fold increase in these plants, which have extended their ranges southward and cover more extensive areas, wherever found.